Stop land grabbing! Life, land, and justice in Uganda

Title Stop land grabbing! Life,   land, and justice in Uganda
Director(s)
Date released (year) 2012

 

Production company The Source Film, for Friends of the Earth International

 

Length 5mins
Location Uganda
Keywords/tags Land grabbing, food security, agriculture, displacement
Link to film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17QxF61PVC4
Synopsis In   Kalangala, Uganda, John Muyisa woke up one day to find bulldozers clearing   his land to plant oil palms. John and his community have preserved their   forests and lands for generations. Now their way of life is at risk.
Reviews/discussion Land grabbing explained

This campaign highlights the destructive environmental and social   impacts of unsustainable resource use in the global North and South. We are   seeking to defend community territories, protect land rights and increase   awareness of corporations’ agendas, strategies, abuses and violations.

An elderly woman holds on to the fence separating her   land, where she rears goats, from the advancing soya plantations, in Cordoba,   Argentina.For centuries, communities have been intimidated to abandon   – or forcibly removed from – their land in a seemingly endless battle to   control natural resources. Today, these problems still occur and are   manifesting in more direct and disturbing ways: multinational corporations   occupy large swaths of community land that provides critical supplies for   local populations in order to extract profitable resources – including crops   for agrofuels, food, carbon offsets or minerals – for the benefit of often   quite distant national and international elites.

Driven by greed and materialism, the destruction of local communities   and their environments often results in the violation of both human and   community rights. We have seen increased militarization and criminalization   of communities who resist the appropriation of their communal lands. We have also   witnessed severe environmental degradation and the destruction of natural   commons for the longevity of communities.

More: Read   our report on Land Grabbing in Uganda

More: Watch   this true story about resistance to Lord Grabbing

This system continues to perpetuate the gross inequity in the   distribution of natural commons (healthy ecosystems, water and air), create a   poor underclass in both Global North and South, all of which further divide   our world in to the haves and have-nots. Meanwhile, the consumers of these   ill-begotten resources are not necessarily happier as a result of their   consumption.

This campaign seeks to stop the destructive consumption race by   creating, protecting and enforcing community and individual rights to land   and their commons. It will also challenge the current unsustainable   consumptive patterns of elites and target specific commodities with the aim   of significantly reducing their consumption.

Source: http://www.foei.org/en/what-we-do/land-grabbing/land-grabbing-explained

Investors must stop land grabbing, say civil society groups

LONDON (UK), November 30, 2012   – Major farmland investors such as banks and pension funds must stop   facilitating land grabs, say civil society groups [1] on the eve of a global   farmland investment conference in London on 3-5 December. [2]

Banks and pension funds are   increasingly engaging in large-scale acquisitions of land with extremely   damaging consequences for local populations. The London conference will bring   together funds with more than USD3 trillion in assets to explore   opportunities for investments in Africa, Latin America and Russia.

The civil society groups are warning that pension funds and banks attending   the conference, for instance Deutsche Bank, must ensure they do not fund   risky investments that threaten the livelihoods and food sovereignty of   countless local communities.

Since 2008 rising financial investments in land have contributed to more than   200 million hectares of land being taken from small farmers, fisherfolk, and   other rural communities, robbing them of their means of survival. [3] Land   grabbing also frequently involves violent evictions and human rights   violations. Institutional investors are expected to increase by 500% their   agricultural investment portfolios by 2017.

Kirtana Chandrasekaran, Friends of the Earth International Food Sovereignty   programme co-ordinator, said: “Unfortunately private investment in farmland   may be seen by many as low risk and positive for developing countries. Yet   they are often a disaster for local communities and the environment. Legal   uncertainty and community opposition means that most farmland investments are   also risky for investors.”

“Major investors such as banks and pension funds need to urgently investigate   their investment portfolios and stop funding land grabs,” she added.
Earlier this year Friends of the Earth Europe released the report ‘Farming   money: How European banks and private finance profit from food speculation   and land grabs’. The report analyses the activities of 29 European banks,   pension funds and insurance companies, including Deutsche Bank, Barclays,   RBS, Allianz, BNP Paribas, AXA, HSBC, Generali, Unicredit and Credit   Agricole. It reveals the significant involvement of these financial   institutions in food speculation, and the direct or indirect financing of   land grabbing. [4]

COUNTRY EXAMPLES

LIBERIA

In Liberia, farmland investments have facilitated land grabbing. A quarter of   the country – including vast swathes of fertile land- has been handed to palm   oil, rubber and logging companies, preventing its use for food production.   These large plantations are promoted as a means to create jobs, bring   development, and increase the government’s budget. In reality they are   jeopardizing the land rights of local populations, threatening local   livelihoods and putting the future of one of the world’s most significant   biodiversity hotspots into doubt.

This week in Liberia the Sustainable Development Institute (SDI) / Friends of   the Earth Liberia is holding a major conference with oil palm   plantations-affected communities who are demanding to be heard and consulted.

Between 2009 and 2010 the government of Liberia allocated more than a million   acres of land to transnational palm oil producers Sime Darby and Golden   Veroleum Liberia without consulting or securing the consent of those living   on and using the land. [5]

ETHIOPIA

In the past few years, Ethiopia allocated huge areas of fertile arable   farmland to foreign investors with little consultations with the affected   communities. Since 2008 more than 3.6 million hectares of land has been   allocated to foreign investors. For instance, in Gambela region, an Indian   company -Karuturi Global- has been allocated staggering 300,000 hectares of   land depriving indigenous people of access to water, fishing and grazing   grounds, traditional construction materials, and food. Like in many other   cases there has been a lack of prior consent and consultation with the local   people and affected communities were not consulted and did not give their prior   consent these farmland investments.

“In Ethiopia and elsewhere farmland investments for instance in plantations   are jeopardizing the land rights of local people, and threatening local   livelihoods ,” said Nyikaw Ochalla from Anywaa Survival Organisation-ASO.

MADAGASCAR

“In Madagascar, landgrabbing is caused by foreign and domestic investors   implementing agribusiness projects and setting up biodiversity conservation   areas, but also developing tourism and extractive industry infrastructure”   says Mamy Rakotondrainibe, from the Collectif pour la défense des terres   malgaches -TANY in Madagascar.

“We are currently supporting pastoralists communities’ claims against the   Italian company Tozzi Green which aims to lease 100 000 hectars in the   Ihorombe region to mainly cultivate jatropha for agrofuel production” she   adds.

UGANDA

A report released earlier this year by Friends of the Earth Uganda revealed   widespread violations of people’s rights and environmental destruction from a   land grab in Uganda. [6]

Source: http://www.foei.org/en/media/archive/2012/investors-must-stop-land-grabbing-say-civil-society-groups-1

Links to other resources Friends of   the Earth Internationa, land-grab campaign: http://www.foei.org/landgrab

World Bank Refuses to Stop   Funding African Land Grabs, October 8, 2012, African   Globe.  Source: http://www.oaklandinstitute.org/world-bank-refuses-stop-funding-african-land-grabs

Seeds of freedom

 

Title Seeds of Freedom
Director(s)  
Date released (year) 2012
Production company The Gaia   Foundation and the African Biodiversity Network. In collaboration with GRAIN,   Navdanya International and MELCA Ethiopia .
Length 30mins
Location  
Keywords/tags Agriculture, food, food security, poverty
Link to film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvgaMd6GBgQ
Synopsis The story of   seed has become one of loss, control, dependence and debt. It’s been written   by those who want to make vast profit from our food system, no matter what   the true cost. It’s time to change the story. Narrated by Jeremy Irons.

Seeds of Freedom charts the story of seed from its roots at the heart of   traditional, diversity rich farming systems across the world, to being   transformed into a powerful commodity, used to monopolise the global food   system.The film highlights the extent to which the industrial agricultural   system, and genetically modified (GM) seeds in particular, has impacted on   the enormous agro -biodiversity evolved by farmers and communities around the   world, since the beginning of agriculture.

Seeds of Freedom seeks to challenge the mantra that large-scale, industrial   agriculture is the only means by which we can feed the world, promoted by the   pro-GM lobby. In tracking the story of seed it becomes clear how corporate   agenda has driven the take over of seed in order to make vast profit and   control of the food global system.

Through interviews with leading international experts such as Dr Vandana Shiva   and Henk Hobbelink, and through the voices of a number of African farmers,   the film highlights how the loss of indigenous seed goes hand in hand with   loss of biodiversity and related knowledge; the loss of cultural traditions   and practices; the loss of livelihoods; and the loss of food sovereignty. The   pressure is growing to replace the diverse, nutritional, locally adapted and   resilient seed crops which have been bred by small-scale farmers for   millenia, by monocultures of GM seed.

Alongside speakers from indigenous farming communities, the film features   global experts and activists Dr Vandana Shiva of Navdanya, Henk Hobbelink of   GRAIN, Zac Goldsmith MP (UK Conservative party), Canadian farmer Percy   Schmeiser, Kumi Naidoo of Greenpeace International, Gathuru Mburu of the   African Biodiversity Network, Liz Hosken of The Gaia Foundation and Caroline   Lucas MP (UK Green party).

Reviews/discussion The Gaia Foundation (Gaia) has over 25 years experience working with   partners in Africa, South America, Asia and Europe to regenerate cultural and   biological diversity. In collaboration with partners on the ground,   particularly through the African Biodiversity Network, The Gaia Foundation   works with communities who are committed to regaining their seed, water and   food sovereignty. Together, Gaia and partners have pioneered the Climate, Seed & Knowledge (CSK) programme,   which supports the revival of indigenous seed diversity and related knowledge   through tools such as eco-cultural calendars. These were developed through   Gaia’s work in the Amazon in the 90’s with Gaia Amazonas. In the 90’s, when   the first GM crop was shipped from USA to Europe, without any public debate,   Gaia helped to initiate a broad-based coalition of civil society groups in   the UK calling for a moratorium on genetic engineering (GE) in food and   agriculture. This later became what is now known as the GM   Freeze campaign, the first of many to fight against GM across   Europe and beyond.

Visit   Website

The African Biodiversity Network

The   African Biodiversity Network (ABN) is a regional network of individuals and   organisations first conceived in 1996 in response to growing concerns over   threats to biodiversity in Africa. As the agendas of global agri-business   turned their attention to Africa, the need to develop strong African   positions, a united African voice and the legal instruments to oppose these   threats became increasingly important. This advocacy work is rooted in ABN’S   work to revive ecosystem and community resilience, by focusing on the   regeneration of indigenous knowledge and ecological agricultural practices.   The Climate, Seed & Knowledge (CSK) programme   emerged out of the work with communities, to recuperate their traditional   seed diversity and related knowledge. This is the foundation of climate   change resilience, and in turn food and seed sovereignty. ABN is one of the   founding partners of the Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa (AFSA),   which was initiated in 2009, bringing together a number of African regional   networks working on issues ranging from farming and agro-ecology, to   indigenous peoples’ rights and related advocacy.

Visit Website

Source: http://www.seedsoffreedom.info/

 

The African individuals and communities who feature in the film have   been working with partner organisations of the African Biodiversity Network   to revive their local seed varieties. In Kenya, Ethiopia and South Africa in   particular, these communities are reclaiming their seed sovereignty. This   area of work, known as the Climate, Seed & Knowledge programme, has been   developed by the ABN and Gaia with communities over the last decade. Find out   more: http://www.seedsoffreedom.info/our-projects/climate-seed-knowledge/

Dr Hans R Herren, President Biovision Foundation and Millennium   Institute

“Yet another important piece of   the puzzle that we needed to get the full picture of what a sustainable   agriculture, food and nutrition security reality looks like. It is time for   our decision makers to protect the branch we are sitting on, them included,   and so they need to return the rights to the seeds to their legal owners, the   farmers”

Vandana Shiva, Founding Director, Navdanya, India

“Seeds of Freedom is a powerful film with an important message. There   is a new wave of cultural imperialism taking place right now in the field of   biodiversity and seed. We are losing our critical seed diversity to just a   handful of corporations in the western world. The genetic erosion taking   place here is tantamount to ecocide. The rate of farmer suicides because of   crop failure and debt is nothing short of genocide. We must decentralise our   food system.”

Henk Hobbelink, Co-ordinator, GRAIN

“It   is time for people to realise that diversity means survival. Diversity is   what gives us resilience, and resilience is exactly what we are going to need   as the climate changes alongside social, political and economic landscapes.   It’s very important for people to realise that we simply won’t be able to   produce the food that we need if we allow our natural biodiversity to be   further eroded. Watch Seeds of Freedom and then do something about it. It’s   time for us all to stop partaking in this aggressive food system and to   demand something different.”

Kumi Naidoo

“There’s a popular myth that Africa needs and wants GM, which needs   to be dispelled. Quite categorically, they don’t – farmers from the continent   have been successfully saving and selecting seeds for thousands of years.   Films like Seeds of Freedom are vital in highlighting the voices of these   people, a people who recognise the importance of maintaining seed ownership   and diversity for reasons of culture, climate resilience and food   sovereignty.”

Source: http://www.seedsoffreedom.info/about-the-film/endorsements/

Links to other resources United Nations University, Are transgenic crops safe? GM agriculture in Africa, at: http://unu.edu/publications/articles/are-transgenic-crops-safe-gm-agriculture-in-africa.html

 

Jennifer G. Cooke, Richard   Downie (2010) Assessing the Debate in Zambia, Kenya, and South   Africa: http://csis.org/publication/african-perspectives-genetically-modified-crops

 

GMO Watch: http://www.gmo-watch.com/

From the Mara Soil – a Film About Simple and Natural Solutions to Poverty, Hunger and Disease

 

Title From the Mara Soil – a Film About Simple and Natural Solutions to   Poverty, Hunger and Disease
Director(s) Steve Schrenzel
Date   released (year) 2011
Production   company Global   Resource Alliance
Length 39.33
Location Tanzania
Keywords/tags Global hunger,   natural resources
Link to film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AaYsZYz3VI
Synopsis What if global hunger, poverty and disease could be solved with resources   already at our disposal? From the Mara Soil transports you to a community in   rural Tanzania that is doing just that – solving humanity’s greatest   challenges with simple, natural and affordable solutions.

A small plot of sandy, dry land is being transformed into a nutrient-rich   food forest. Women are escaping the hazards of daily life by capturing the   energy of the sun. The community is discovering cures to deadly disease in   local plants and natural medicine. A local non-profit is tapping into clean,   pure water just below the bedrock….

This visually stunning film captures the daily pain and suffering caused by   poverty in Tanzania, and the creativity and courage of the Mara community in   finding practical solutions to their own problems.

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AaYsZYz3VI

Reviews/discussion Hilton Worldwide LightStay Sustainability Award &   Fund, 2012   Hilton Worldwide and Sundance Institute
Best Short Documentary Film, 2012 Peace on Earth Film Festival   Chicago, IL
Best Sustainable Practices Film, 2011 Green Screen Environmental Film   Festival Santa Monica, CA

GRA is an all-volunteer 501(c)(3) organization   dedicated to bringing hope, joy and abundance in the Mara Region of Tanzania.   By sharing ideas, volunteers and financial resources with local, community   based organizations we seek to promote natural, holistic and sustainable   solutions to the challenges of poverty, malnutrition and disease. The   inspiration and leadership for our work comes from the communities we serve.   We believe that empowering local communities to address pressing social,   economic and environmental challenges according to their own vision and their   own creative potential is the key to lasting solutions.

Source: http://www.globalresourcealliance.org/

 

Links to   other resources Dryland Permaculture with Bill   Mollison: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JmdCIqNG5BI

See Hope in a Changing Climate: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/whats-on/ou-on-the-bbc-hope-changing-climate

http://permacultureglobal.com

http://permaculturevisions.com

Activists Challenge African ‘Land Grab’

 

Title Activists Challenge African ‘Land Grab’
Director(s)  
Date released (year) 2012

 

Production company TheRealNews
Length 5 mins
Location  
Keywords/tags Land grabs, activism, social   movements, neoliberalism, neocolonialism
Link to film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-2bflkLT38
Synopsis The World   Bank and Wall Street firms targeted for African land deals displacing   hundreds of thousands.
Reviews/discussion From John   Vidal and Claire Provost,   www.guardian.co.uk,   Monday   23 April 2012:

Campaigners claim World Bank helps facilitate land grabs in Africa

Food shortages and   rural deprivation exacerbated by World Bank policy, says NGO ahead of land   and poverty conference

Forest clearing takes   place on a plot of land in Uganda that has fallen into the hands of a palm   tree plantation owner. Photograph: Jason Taylor/FOEI/ATI

The World   Bank is helping corporations and international investors snap up   cheap land in Africa   and developing countries worldwide at the expense of local communities,   environment and farm groups said in a statement released on Monday to   coincide with the bank’s annual land and poverty conference in Washington DC.

According to the groups, which include NGO Friends of the Earth   International (FOEI) and international peasants’ group La Via Campesina,   decades of World Bank policies have pushed African and other governments to   privatise land and focus on industrial farming. In addition, they say, the   bank is playing a “key role” in the global rush for farmland by   providing capital and guarantees to big multinational investors.

“The result has often been … people forced off land they have   traditionally farmed for generations, more rural poverty and greater risk of   food shortages”, said FOEI in a separate report launched   ahead of the World Bank conference.

The event, which promises to focus on “land governance in a rapidly   changing environment”, is billed as a forum to discuss “innovative   approaches” to land governance challenges including climate change, the   growing demand for key natural resources, and rapid urbanisation. But   campaigners say the conference mistakenly focuses on how to improve   large-scale land deals rather than on helping local communities to secure or   retain access to their land.

The FOEI report suggests land grabbing is intensifying and spreading,   especially in rural areas of Africa and Asia. “High levels of demand for   land have pushed up prices, bringing investment banks and speculators into   farming,” it says.

“The World Bank’s policies for land privatisation and concentration   have paved the way for corporations from Wall Street to Singapore to take   upwards of 80m hectares (197.6 acres) of land from rural communities across   the world in the past few years,” said the groups in a statement   accusing the bank of promoting “corporate-oriented rather than   people-centred” policies and laws.

In 2010, the World Bank spearheaded the development of new principles for   responsible agricultural investment to better ensure that land deals respect   local rights, livelihoods and resources; these guidelines have also been   criticised for legitimising, rather than challenging, the global rush for   land.

Allegations of land-grabbing have hit countries around the world and have   been accompanied by growing concern about whether large-scale land deals are   delivering promised income and employment for local people. This week, a   coalition of NGOs and research institutes is expected to release the latest   findings of the Land Matrix project, which has attempted to systematically   document recent land acquisitions.

Current estimates suggest that 80-230m hectares of land have been leased   or bought in recent years, largely to produce food, feed or fuel for the   international market.

World Bank money has been involved in many recent international land deals, says the FOEI   report. In Uganda, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the bank’s   private sector lending arm, contributed $10m for a project to clear 10,000   hectares of land for palm oil plantations on Bugala Island in Lake Victoria.

But FOEI research has shown that local people were prevented from   accessing water sources and grazing land, suggesting that – despite promises   of employment – many people have lost their means of livelihood.

Resistance to land grabs is growing: Harvard University has come under   intense pressure to ensure its investments do not contribute to land grabs in   Africa, while Iowa State University has withdrawn from a deal in Tanzania   that could have displaced an estimated 160,000 people. In South Sudan, the   government halted a land deal after local communities erupted in protest,   saying their lands had been secretly leased to an American company.

This month, farmers and land   rights activists from across Sierra Leone converged on the   country’s capital for a national assembly of communities   affected by large-scale land deals, where groups launched a new   civil-society watchdog to monitor agribusiness investments. The meeting   followed the first international farmers’ conference   to tackle land grabs, held in Selingue, southern Mali, in late 2011.

On Tuesday, food justice activists, environmental organisations, students   and Occupy Wall Street groups are set to gather in front of New York’s   Waldorf Astoria hotel to challenge the fourth annual Global AgInvesting (GAI)   conference, where institutional investors and fund managers are meeting to   discuss opportunities for agricultural investments overseas.

“Governments around the world need to stop land grabbing, not just   try to mitigate its worst impacts. Governments must abide by their human   rights obligations on land and drastically reduce demand for commodities such   as palm oil from the west,” said Kirtana Chandrasekaran, FOEI’s food   sovereignty co-ordinator.

David Kureeba, from the Ugandan national association of professional   environmentalists, said: “People’s rights to land [in Uganda] are being   demolished. Small-scale farming and forestry that protected unique wildlife,   heritage and food is being converted to palm oil wastelands that only profit   agribusinesses.”

Government officials, civil society, experts and the private sector will   gather at the World Bank conference, which ends on Thursday, to discuss   large-scale land aquisitions, land governance in the context of climate   change, and rapid urbanisation.

Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/apr/23/world-bank-land-grabs-africa

 

Future Agricultures Policy briefing, 2011: Land Grabbing in Africa (…)

 

Africa, a continent plagued by   chronic food insecurity, is now considered to be the future breadbasket of   the world, and is expected to help meet its rising food needs. In the process   of cashing in on the opportunities offered by cheap land and water,   large-scale investors are displacing land uses and land users in ways that could   aggravate the already severe challenges of rural poverty and hunger.

The rise of ‘land grabbing’ or   ‘responsibleagricultural investment’ in Africa is undoubtedly one of the   great challenges of our time for development in the continent. The deals   being made now are remaking the map of food production

and food distribution, in   Africa and globally. What happens over the next few years—acceleration or   reversal, regulation or laissez-faire, better governance or substantive   changes in agricultural policy—will determine to a great extent the future of   poverty and hunger in Africa.

 

Source: www.future-agricultures.org

 

Links to other resources World   Bank Refuses to Stop Funding African Land Grabs, October 8, 2012, African Globe.

Source: http://www.oaklandinstitute.org/world-bank-refuses-stop-funding-african-land-grabs

A Thousand Suns

Title A Thousand Suns – Global Oneness Project (Part   1)
Director(s) Stephen Marshall
Date released (year) 2009
Production company ChannelSideBySide
Length 8.50mins
Location Ethiopia
Keywords/tags Indigenous, climate change, agriculture, food security
Link to film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bNhTYxYfV4
Synopsis A Thousand Suns tells   the story of the Gamo Highlands of the African Rift Valley and the unique   worldview held by the people of the region. This isolated area has remained   remarkably intact both biologically and culturally. It is one of the most   densely populated rural regions of Africa yet its people have been farming   sustainably for 10,000 years. Shot in Ethiopia, New York and Kenya, the film   explores the modern world’s untenable sense of separation from and   superiority over nature and how the interconnected worldview of the Gamo   people is fundamental in achieving long-term sustainability, both in the   region and beyond.

Source: http://www.globalonenessproject.org/library/films/thousand-suns

Reviews/discussion The Global Oneness   Project is a digital, ad-free, bi-monthly magazine. Through stories, we   explore the threads that connect culture, ecology, and beauty. Our collection   of films, photography, and essays feature diverse and dynamic voices from   around the world.

Source: http://www.globalonenessproject.org/about-project

A. Nyong,  F. Adesina & B. Osman Elasha (2007) The   value of indigenous knowledge in climate change mitigation and adaptation   strategies in the African Sahel, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
Volume   12, Issue 5 , pp 787-797.

Abstract

Past global efforts at   dealing with the problem of global warming concentrated on mitigation, with   the aim of reducing and possibly stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG)   concentrations in the atmosphere. With the slow progress in achieving this,   adaptation was viewed as a viable option to reduce the vulnerability to the   anticipated negative impacts of global warming. It is increasingly realized   that mitigation and adaptation should not be pursued independent of each   other but as complements. This has resulted in the recent calls for the   integration of adaptation into mitigation strategies. However, integrating   mitigation and adaptation into climate change concerns is not a completely   new idea in the African Sahel. The region is characterized by severe and   frequent droughts with records dating back into centuries. The local   populations in this region, through their indigenous knowledge systems, have   developed and implemented extensive mitigation and adaptation strategies that   have enabled them reduce their vulnerability to past climate variability and   change, which exceed those predicted by models of future climate change.   However, this knowledge is rarely taken into consideration in the design and   implementation of modern mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper   highlights some indigenous mitigation and adaptation strategies that have   been practiced in the Sahel, and the benefits of integrating indigenous   knowledge into formal climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.   Incorporating indigenous knowledge can add value to the development of   sustainable climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies that are rich   in local content, and planned in conjunction with local people.

Source: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11027-007-9099-0#

Links to other resources Oxfam report on climate change in Ethiopia: http://www.oxfam.org/pressroom/pressrelease/2010-04-22/climate-change-increasing-poverty-and-vulnerability-ethiopia

Marius Keller, Climate Risks and   Development Projects: Assessment Report for a Community-Level Project in   Guduru, Oromiya, Ethiopia. Source: http://www.iisd.org/cristaltool/documents/BFA-Ethiopia-Assessment-Report-Eng.pdf